Virgin Mary Apparitions Are False!

By Natalie Hardt|2019

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The Roman Catholic Church has high-jacked and has manipulated the Gospel, making it a false pagan religion and worthy of being called a cult.

Disclaimer: before I proceed on this topic, I want to say that I am not trying to offend people, but rather call out the Roman Catholic Church for what it is. It is not loving others if one is more concerned about feelings or offending than speaking the truth especially concerning salvation; therefore, Catholics are the mission field and must learn the truth. 

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All people should be able to have direct access to the Word of God. When a peoples cannot read nor understand God’s Word, the more vulnerable they become to “wolves in sheep’s clothing” (Matthew 7:15-20), for scripture warns us “…false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect” (Matthew 24:24 ESV). Before I became a Christian, I wanted the cute stories I heard growing up about the Virgin Mary (Mary) appearances to be true; I am here to say, they are not from God. Catholic counterarguments have included “so many people have seen and heard from these apparitions, how can everyone be wrong?” My response is YES, they are wrong and so is the Roman Catholic Church.

Scripture clearly identifies Satan as an angel of light, an imitator of God:

“For such men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. So it is no surprise if his servants, also, disguise themselves as servants of righteousness…” (2 Corinthians 11:14-15 ESV).

Biblical scripture in no way shape or form supports the various titles and roles the Roman Catholic Church has attributed to Mary, such as “Queen of Heaven” and “Mother of God”; titles that go back to ancient civilization goddess worshipping peoples (MacArthur, 2015). Examples include Solomon, of whom turns from God to follow his foreign wives that worship false gods/goddesses.

“He [Solomon] followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molek the detestable god of the Ammonites” (1 Kings 11:5 NIV). To worship Molek and other gods like this involve infant sacrifice (Leviticus 20). The wisest man to ever live and son of King David of whose line will come Messiah, will turn his heart and mind from the living God to worship idols/fake gods (1 Kings 11:9), “He [Solomon] took the carved Asherah [goddess] pole he had made and put it in the temple, of which the Lord had said to David and to his son Solomon, “In this temple and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put my Name forever”” (2 Kings 21:7 NIV). Scripture warns against falling prey to false gods/teachings; therefore, be armed with the Word of God, “For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect” (Matthew 24:24 NIV; Ephesians 6:11). What happens when the elect – bishops and popes – corrupt either the Word of God and/or the interpretation of it? You get false religions like the Roman Catholic Church.

Vulgate
The Books of the Bible were already established by the time Saint Jerome (347-420AD) decided to translate the Bible in Latin, a language no longer spoken nor understood by the masses; this version of translation became known as the Vulgate. Jerome does get push back from colleagues; however, it will be the 15th and 16th centuries when Desiderius Erasmus identifies errors with the Vulgate translation, including passages surrounding Mary. Around the same time Erasmus was causing trouble for the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther was also making his stand against the church and pinned his 95 theses on the church doors in Wittenberg that launched the Reformation.

One of the most controversial translations concerning the Vulgate is the moment Angel Gabriel speaks to Mary, “hail one that is full of grace, the Lord is with you, blessed are you among women” (Luke 1:28 NIV), as opposed to the previous interpretation of “one who has found favor”. The error concerning the Latin version is that the correct translation should have been “gratificata” which means doing favor versus “gratia plena” which means full of grace. Being full of grace signifies void of sin, which is inconsistent with the teachings of Jesus and evident throughout the Old and New Testaments. “…and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin. If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us” (1 John 1:7-8 ESV).

Worship of false gods and superstitious beliefs go back to ancient civilizations with Nimrod and the Tower of Babel to the Canaanites (worship Baal), Assyrians, Babylonians, to the Greeks and Romans. In this same vain, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates with parades and festivals that display costumes and pageantry worship for Lady of Fatima, Lady of Guadalupe, Lady of Pontmain, and many more, “The children gather wood, the fathers light the fire, and the women knead the dough and make cakes to offer to the Queen of Heaven [Ishtar goddess]. They pour out drink offerings to other gods to arouse my anger” (Jeremiah 7:18 NIV); and “But ever since we stopped burning incense to the Queen of Heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have had nothing and have been perishing by sword and famine.” (Jeremiah 22:18 NIV).

Mary worship as if she is responsible or part and partial to one’s salvation is Presentation1blasphemous, a complete and utter false teaching that prevents people from knowing the truth that Jesus Christ is the only way to the Father! Popes and bishops today are reflective of first century Pharisees (Jewish religious leaders) with their costumes, prestige and legalism. Jesus describes these corrupt religious leaders, the Pharisees like this, “You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies” (John 8:44 NIV). Satan infiltrates God’s plan through confusion that goes clear back to the Garden of Eden when the serpent subtly coerces Eve to doubt and question God. Satan works at taking as many souls with him because he knows his time is almost up, “And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever.” (Revelation 20:10 NIV).

Satan Sows Discourse
Satan does not waste any time weaving discourse and sowing confusion surrounding God’s Word. The Apostles were spreading the Gospel and planting churches, as well as defending the faith against heresies and the circulation of corrupt versions of scripture, “Everything that I command you, you shall be careful to do. You shall not add to it or take from it” (Deuteronomy 12:32 ESV). The Roman Catholic Church may have its roots in Judaism and Christianity, but by the 3rd and 4th centuries it will change and compromise. Examples include combining the resurrection celebration with the celebration of pagan goddess Eostre/Ostara and renaming it ‘Easter’; adding the office and position of the papacy as head of the church; and fabricating ritualistic acts such as praying with a rosary, devotionals to the immaculate heart, and inventing purgatory as part of salvation. All of these are blasphemy! This begs the question, how can this happen?

A combination of popes and bishops/archbishops being among the few that could read and write and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476AD, popes and bishops gain power, prominence, and influence over emperors. Popes and other religious leaders are being called ‘father’, an abomination for that is reserved only for our Father in heaven. Moreover, there is no further need for the Levitical system (Jewish priesthood) because Jesus has filled the position of High Priest of whom intercedes on our behalf. Prior to the resurrection, the Jewish High Priest would make the once a year sacrificial atonement for the Nation of Israel by going into the section of the Tabernacle/Temple referred to as the Holy Holies (Leviticus 16; Hebrews 9). Scripture records the Jewish Temple’s veil being torn top to bottom the moment Jesus’ work on the cross is complete. This veil is more like a thick fabric and approximately 60 ft. high that separates the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies, “At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split” (Matthew 17:51 NIV).

The Rosary
The ‘rosary’ and its use when praying is an example of manner that does not glorify Jesus Christ, but rather praying to a sinful human being, Mary (all people sin). Jesus specifically says, “But when you pray go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret…”” (Matthew 6:6 ESV), not go seek out a priest or church leader and confess. Then there is the matter of repetitive chants, also unbiblical and blasphemous, as when the priest instructs to repent by saying 10 Hail Marys, “use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think they shall be heard for their much speaking” (Matthew 6:7 KJV).

Recognizing False Doctrine
Reading Scripture is the best defense against false teachings; I can confirm the below statement from Lucia is inconsistent with Scripture and is NOT from God.

“Lucia made some requests for sick people, to which Mary replied that she would cure some but not others, and that all must say the rosary to obtain such graces, before continuing: “Sacrifice yourselves for sinners, and say many times, especially when you make some sacrifice: O Jesus, it is for love of You, for the conversion of sinners, and in reparation for the sins committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary” (theotokos.org.uk).

The apparition says “to obtain such graces” which falls in-line with good works and is actually central to the Catholic religion and not to Scripture. Faith alone in Jesus ‘alone’ brings salvation, there is nothing a person can do to earn grace from God. Then there is the nonsensical statement inconsistent with scripture, “sins committed against the immaculate heart of Mary” that puts Mary on a level equal or even above God the Father, Jesus, the Son, and God the Holy Spirit – the Trinity. Not only have Catholic leaders twisted the Word of God, they have led many down the wrong path that will be met with punishment; those given more responsibility, comes greater expectations, rewards, and punishments, “But false prophets also arose among the people, just as they will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. (2 Peter 2:1 ESV).

Purgatory
Purgatory is unbiblical, there is no pit-stop, some waiting room before being judged! This is complete and utterly false and another example of false biblical interpretation of the Gospel. The Catholic Church developed a system where one can apply merit, for a fee to loved ones in purgatory so they may complete their journey to heaven, this is completely erroneous and shameful. This is further evidence of how far from the true Gospel, the Roman Catholic Church has gone. As the church became church/state, it would have to behave like any government that protects itself from enemy forces. The Catholic Church had to come up with a way to justify war-ing via the crusades that eventually led to the buying and selling of salvation through what was known as indulgences. By the 4th century and well into the 11th century, the Roman Catholic Church is not being led by the Holy Spirit as it spirals further into decay as a result of preaching false doctrine.

Repentance
The incorrect Vulgate interpretation of Matthew 4:17, says “Then Jesus began to preach and say: “‘do penance, for the kingdom of heaven has drawn near””; the correct translation is ‘repent, for the kingdom…’. Catholicism puts human effort as having a role in redemption, as if one can earn their way to heaven. Apostle Paul goes into detail about the result of good works due to deposited grace by the power of the Holy Spirit. God knows our true motivations and desires because He knows the hearts and minds of men (scripture), “…it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast” (Ephesians 2:9 ESV). Only the Holy Spirit has the power to transform from within – the hearts and minds of believers in Christ.

Other false teachings perpetuated by the Roman Catholic Church include abstinence from marriage during the reign of Pope Benedict VIII and Pope Gregory VII, as late as the 11th century. There are unholy reasons for this including the church’s way to ensure no responsibility for a family when a pope dies (MacArthur, 2015). Scripture clearly teaches that it is by choice that one may choose to abstain from marriage, it is not a mandate. Scripture mentions Jesus healing Peter’s mother-in-law in Luke 4:38, and Apostle Paul’s choice to be celibate in 1 Corinthians 7.

Catholicism has moved far from its Judaism and Christian roots; however, the true Word of God remains. The Bible is referred to as ‘Canon’, a Greek word that means ‘rule’ because the Canon is the measuring stick. All the Books of the Bible are consistent divinely inspired writings by approximately 40 different authors on 3 different continents. The books were scrutinized for canonization that includes answering a set of questions: 1) was the book written by a prophet; 2) miracles authenticate writer, confirming his message; 3) does the writing tell the truth about God without contradictions; 4) does the writing have a divine capacity to transform lives; and 5) did the people it was written for accept it as God’s Word (McGrath, 2012). The Word of God is relevant today as it was more than 2,000 years ago with the Old Testament long established centuries prior. Jesus often quotes from the Septuagint (Greek translation of Hebrew text) in His teachings and when He debates the Pharisees. The New Testament books were written, circulated, and accepted long before the Vulgate, the councils reaffirmed which 26 books would make up the New Testament (i.e. Nicene, Constantinople). These writings were always meant to go directly to the people in a language they understood which is why Jerome’s translation in the Latin was met with much scrutiny.

“Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, but every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming and even now is already in the world.” (1 John 4:1-3 NIV).

“For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 6:23 ESV).

Jesus gives the Great Commission to the 12 Apostles, “Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me, Therefore, go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age” (Matthew 28: 18-20 NIV). When Jesus ascends to heaven, the church begins and so will Satan’s attempts to copy God and thwart His plan. First century church struggled in a pagan world much like today. Corinth struggled with immorality; Colossae had its mystics; Ephesus encountered false teachers; Thessalonica had end of time freaks; and Philippi were complainers (Muehlhoff, T., & Lewis, T. V. 2010). By the time we get to the Apostles to the Apostles, known as the Patristic Era (100-500AD), there are two schools of thought, Alexandria in Egypt (Alexander the Great established) that takes a philosophical approach (Greek), and the school of Antioch in Syria, where Apostle Paul and Barnabas plant the first church of believers that call themselves Christians.

The Humanness of Mary
We get another glimpse into Jesus’ family in Matthew “Where did this man get this wisdom and these mighty works? Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas? And are not all his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all these things?” And they took offense at him. But Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown and in his own household.” And he did not do many mighty works there, because of their unbelief” (Matthew 13:54-58 ESV). Jesus was known to have brothers and sisters, His brother James authored Book of James; moreover, Mary speaks of her Lord, “And Mary said, “My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior for he has looked on the humble estate of his servant. For behold, from now on all generations will call me blessed; for he who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is his name” (Luke 1:46-49 ESV). Mary knows she is human and in need of a Savior, “For there is no distinction: for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God…” (Romans 3:23 ESV). Finally, it does not go without escape how Jesus speaks to His mother, as in the Cana Wedding where He says, “Woman (Mary), why do you involve me?” and “…My hour has not yet come” (John 2:4 NIV). Then there is the moment Jesus is speaking to a group in a home and it says, “Someone told him, “Your mother and brothers are standing outside, wanting to speak to you.” He replied to him, “Who is my mother, and who are my brothers?” Pointing to his disciples, he said, “Here are my mother and my brothers. For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother” (Matthew 12: 47-50 ESV). Mary is a Bible heroine and one to be loved, just not in the way she is depicted by the Roman Catholic Church. Jesus must get all the glory – ALL.

“Surely there is not a righteous man [or woman] on earth who does good and never sins.” (Ecclesiastes 7:20 ESV).

References:
CNS photo/Paul Haring. 2018. Retrieved from https://www.americamagazine.org/faith/2018/03/03/pope-francis-establishes-universal-feast-day-blessed-virgin-mary-mother-church
MacArthur, J. (2015). Exposing the Idolatry of Mary Worship parts 1-4. YouTube. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/RbDn_KU7BqU
McGrath, A. (2012).
Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought.2nd edition. Retrieved from http://www.modernreformation.org/default.php?page=articledisplay&var2=750
Muehlhoff, T., & Lewis, T. V. (2010).
Authentic communication: Christian speech engaging culture. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Retrieved by: http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/intervarsity-press/2010/authentic-communication_christian-speech-engaging-culture_ebook_1e.php
Theotokos Catholic Book. Words spoken by Mary at Fatima. Retrieved from http://www.theotokos.org.uk/pages/approved/words/wordfati.ht

Genesis Compared to Other Creation Stories

By Natalie Hardt | 2019

Christian interpretation of Genesis 1 that acknowledges the Ancient Near Eastern context, and modern science

Sinful Creatures in Need of a Good God

By Natalie Hardt | 2019 

The greatest Christian on earth was the Apostle Paul, of whom saw and acknowledged his wretchedness, “For I do not do the good I want to do, but the evil I do not want to do – this I keep on doing” (Romans 7: 19 NIV).

Human beings cannot know God without the Holy Spirit’s transformative work in and through their lives. Galatians 5:22 identifies the Spirit as “love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control” (NIV); and goes against human nature that is “sexual immorality, impurity and debauchery; idolatry and witchcraft; hatred, discord, jealousy, fits of rage, selfish ambition, dissentions, factions, and envy; drunkenness, orgies, and the like” (Galatians 5:19-21 NIV). To better understand the war taking place within those that allow the Spirit to guide and grow them, it is important to understand the origin of why human beings are prone to sin. Let me go on a quick detour by saying how essential it is to acknowledge one’s true human nature and deceiving heart. The world likes nothing better than to convince people they are fine the way they are, and if not, well there are plenty of self-help books to make them ‘be their own guide’, so that they can have things ‘their way’ so that they are in ‘control of their destiny’. Advertisements alone bombard with how good and powerful we are without God; this is all part of the enemy’s (Satan/devil) plan. Devil means ‘deceiver’ and Jesus calls out the devil for what he is “the enemy” (Matt 13:39); “a liar” (John 8:44); “a murderer” (John 8:44); “evil one” (Matt 13:38); and “prince of this world” (John 12:31; 14:30). I have encountered non-believers that want to avoid using the word ‘sin’ as if it somehow does not apply to them. This is another subject that can be developed in another discussion; for now, the main point here is to address aspects of humanity’s redemptive story by discussing sin and how we can work in tandem with God’s Spirit to help combat it.

Part of the redemption story is about how the human race has been given the New Covenant, a renewal and final covenant, previous covenants are the Abrahamic, Noahic, Mosaic, and Davidic. Jesus Christ is this New Covenant that replaces the written (Letter) Law given to the Israelite community on Mt. Sinai in Exodus 31:18. The Law was never meant to save, but rather show humanity its sin and its need of a Savior, God Himself. Many Old Testament prophesies point forward to the day when God’s people will be justified through His sanctifying work that will restore His grace once lost because of obeying Satan and not God. This is what Thomas Aquinas refers to as “original justice”, “in eating from the tree of knowledge, the original humans rejected divine wisdom, instead relying upon reason they believed they could internalize, symbolized by the ingestion of fruit from the tree of knowledge, in an act of autonomy” (Stillwaggon, 2014, pp. 67). Where the Law instructs animal sacrifices, because the “wages of sin is death” (Roman 6:23 NIV), the New Covenant replaces and justifies through the Spirit. Faith and not the Law is what saves, “…small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it” (Matthew 7:14 NIV). Once believers respond to the Spirit, natural desire is stirred up within the heart to serve God and others and always consists of sacrificing the flesh and picking up one’s cross to follow Jesus as Lord and Savior. This is how justification through sanctification fulfills God’s promises in the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Formation and Informational

There will be suffering and blessing, sadness and joy throughout a believer’s life as both natures, human and Spirit, live at odds. A changed life is a life that takes on the formative work of the Spirit through His imprinting of Godly attributes that then triggers believer response of performing spiritual disciplines (Strobel, 2013). For example, turning the other cheek in Matthew 5:38-40 which refers to not being offended and is evident in present day America, is a struggle when a Christian is not being led by the Spirit. Willard (1998) says regarding turning the other cheek minus love (God) that “If all you intend is to do that, you will find you can do it with a heart full of bitterness and vengefulness. If, on the other hand, you become a person who has interior character of Christ, remaining appropriately vulnerable will be done as a matter of course, and you will not think of it as a big deal.” (Willard, 1998, pp 107)

Posturing oneself through scripture study, meditation, prayer, and contemplation, the believer invites the Spirit to engage in changing one’s mind and heart. This causes self-reflection that leads to knowing God and oneself more resulting in relationship growth. It is important to state that the more believers see the nature of God’s beauty (the light), the more human nature is evidently seen as darkness and evil. This acknowledgment of sinful nature drives one to repentance; Foster (1988) speaks about the believer’s conscious effort of discipline working together with God’s grace and identifies three catalysts as repentance brings humility, prayer is power, and encouragement from others in Christ (Foster, 1988). The Spirit validates and motivates the believer to repentance, obedience, and self-reflection when the believer invites His glory through engaging in disciplines, not as a good works, but rather in truth and love (Chapell, 2001). Dallas Willard, as cited in Vos (2012) says “prayer has a ‘spiritually strengthening effect’ on every aspect of our personality. It builds our faith and confidence in God. To be done well, prayer will almost certainly be linked with other disciplines…” (Vos, 2012, pp. 104). For instance, prayer can lead to expressions of love that reflects other centeredness as one truly listens to others in need.

Believers through faith are under God’s protection as they experience the Spirit’s sanctification, grace, and mercy; however, as mentioned previously, they are subject to temptations to disobey God, similarly the way Jesus was subject to Satan’s attempts in Matthew 4:1-11. Apostle Paul identifies this duel between a believer’s sinful human nature and God’s holy nature as the process of transforming mind and heart from the “pattern of this world” that results in “test and approve what God’s will is -his good, pleasing and perfect will” (Romans 12:2 NIV). Believers are instructed to put “…on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes” (Ephesians 6:10 NIV). For example, the discipline of ‘prayer’ helps ward off the enemy, as Chapell (2001) puts it, “…we do not have sufficient desire to resist…” and seek to get rid of sin at the same time desire it; therefore, we “pray in the Spirit” so that He may “stir up within us a greater zeal for God” so that we may combat enemy attacks (Chapell, 2001, pp. 150).

Character Formation in Daily Life

Through faith and hope and as I continue to experience character formation, I realize the importance of diligently practicing the spiritual disciplines so that I may be part of what it means to “…go and make disciples of all nations…” (Matthew 28:19 NIV). Having true thanksgiving for the Spirit’s work in my life, as well as my response to Him, requires I develop and cultivate internally obedience through the disciplines. This internal purity will naturally manifest in the external world evident in how I live as I represent the Gospel appropriately. As ambassadors to Christ, the goal is to spread the Gospel and make more disciples; therefore, as I grow, I naturally find I want to do God’s work. I have encountered His blessing that then lends to a deeper intimate experience with Him. Much in the same way any human relationship depends on how much effort one puts in it, whether a husband and wife, friend to friend, or parent to child, my actions matter concerning praise and worship on an individual and community level. Spiritual formation basically requires going beyond recognition to actual experience as a believer feels disconnected to this world and connected to God’s world, His Kingdom on earth, also known as the church (Pettit, 2008). The church is a community of love representative of a family, in the same way the Trinity consists of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Spirit. I am a living testament and have a story to tell about my conversion, who I was, and who I hope to become, that is reflective of my love for God and love for others. This is consistent with the Gospel individually and in community, as one hopes to reflect outwardly the Spirit’s work within the heart (Pettite, 2008).

Always remaining in the Word through study and application remains evident in my life when proper contextualization and interpretation is undertaken. Rather than live in isolation, or hide my faith, I find it freeing to live outwardly, as Matthew puts it, “Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house” (Matthew 5:15 NIV). Unafraid driven by true desire to live one’s faith in a forsaken world, leads to experiencing true joy. Also, the act of partaking in the Eucharist becomes an experience with raw emotion as I commune with Jesus and others in community.

I find mediation and solitude more fruitful when done in nature, away from worldly things and its noise; consequently, contemplation and evaluation concerning my true motives and desires calm me into a demeanor of humility. This results in being better able to listen and respond to God’s will so that my functional call is in line with the Spirit’s will for my life (Pettit, 2008). In those moments in which I am not sure if it is the Spirit’s voice speaking to me, I instantly turn to prayer and at the appropriate time, meditation. I find prayer on the spot and in the moment helpful to my spiritual formation, and when the Spirit convicts me of sin at any time during the day, I immediately respond in prayer and repentance.

References:

Chapell, B. (2011). Holiness by grace: Delighting in the joy that is our strength. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. ISBN-13: 978-1433524424

Foster, R. J.  (1988). Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth. San Francisco: Harper & Row

González, E. (2016). Jesus and the Temple in John and Hebrews: Towards a New Testament Perspective. Davarlogos, 15(2), 39-65. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=121475542&site=eds-live&scope=site

Pettit, P. (Ed.). (2008). Foundations of spiritual formation: A community approach to becoming like Christ. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. ISBN-13: 978-0825434693

Stillwaggon, J. (2014). The Problem of Propagation: Original Sin as Inherited Discourse. Studies In Philosophy & Education, 33(1), 61-73. doi:10.1007/s11217-013-9362-7. Retrieved by: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=93447361&site=eds-live&scope=site

Strobel, K. (2013). Formed for the glory of God: Learning from the spiritual practices of Jonathan Edwards. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books. ISBN-13: 978-0830856534

Vos, B. (2012). The Spiritual Disciplines and Christian Ministry. Evangelical Review of Theology, 36(2), 100–114. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rlh&AN=75190759&site=eds-live&scope=site

Willard, D. (1998). Spiritual Disciplines, Spiritual Formation, and the Restoration of the Soul. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 26(1), 101–109. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001001817&site=eds-live&scope=site